11 March 1829 Mendelssohn performs Bach’s St Matthew Passion #otdimjh

11 March 1829 Felix Mendelssohn performs JS Bach’s St Matthew Passion

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Felix Mendelssohn performed Bach’s St Matthew Passion on 11 March 1829 for the first time in 100 years, marking the rediscovery of Bach as a composer.

This historic performance, due in large part to Mendelssohn’s vision (he was only fifteen when he first saw the score of the Passion, and twenty when his efforts to perform the work were realized), resulted in a full-scale revival and re-evaluation of Bach’s works throughout Germany and beyond, and a universal recognition of their genius and significance.

If you have never heard the St Matthew Passion you can listen to it here

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From the Performing Arts Encylcopedia

Johann Sebastian Bach’s stature as a composer of such extraordinary genius and widespread influence is so firmly established in Western culture that it is difficult to imagine that only a little over a century-and-a-half ago, his music and reputation languished in obscurity, virtually unknown to all but a few specialists. It was through Mendelssohn’s recognition of Bach’s genius and his efforts in making Bach’s works accessible to a wider public that these works are today recognized as summits of musical expression.

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Due to the curious number of coincidences involving the crossed paths of members of both the Bach and Mendelssohn families, it was perhaps inevitable in retrospect that Felix Mendelssohn would “rescue” Bach’s music from near oblivion. Mendelssohn’s great aunt Sarah Itzig Levy (1761-1854) — a sister of Bella Salomon, Mendelssohn’s maternal grandmother — had supported an active music salon in her Berlin home where she cultivated a devotion to the music of Johann Sebastian Bach.

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Sarah was an accomplished musician, having studied the harpsichord with Bach’s eldest son, Wilhelm Friedemann Bach; she also commissioned works from and acquired manuscripts of another of Bach’s sons, the second eldest, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach. Mendelssohn scholar R. Larry Todd points out that the “highly mannered style” of several of young Felix’s string symphonies, dating from the 1820s, may have been influenced by the works of C.P.E. Bach.

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Sarah Levy’s admiration for the music of J.S. Bach also prompted her membership in the chorus of the esteemed Berlin Singakademie, which had been founded in 1791 by C.F.C. Fasch in order to promote the sacred German choral repertoire. Fasch, himself a scholar of J.S. Bach’s motets, led the organization until his death in 1800; his successor, Carl Friedrich Zelter (1758-1832), was later (in 1819) engaged by Abraham Mendelssohn, perhaps on Sarah’s recommendation, as music tutor to the young Felix and Fanny. Under Zelter’s direction, many works from the German repertoire (both choral and instrumental works) that had fallen out of fashion — including those of J.S. Bach (i.e., his the B-minor Mass) — were unearthed and studied. Both Felix and Fanny joined theSingakademie chorus, and thus actively participated in the rediscovery of this repertoire.

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While Zelter was primarily known during his lifetime as a composer, conductor and teacher, his greatest legacy was in creating comprehensive music education programs and training institutions throughout Germany. For young Felix, however, and during the seven years that he studied with Zelter, the older composer remained a dominant musical influence on the younger, providing his pupil with a solid musical training rooted in eighteenth century traditions.

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It is also coincidental that at the time of Felix’s birth, his father Abraham had actually possessed a collection of manuscripts of J.S. Bach’s works, acquired at auction in Hamburg in 1805; forty-three of these manuscripts were subsequently (in 1811) sent to the Berlin Singakademie for safe-keeping. According to Mendelssohn scholar R. Larry Todd, Zelter urged Abraham to pursue his efforts in “saving” other Bach works, for, excepting connoisseurs, “who [else] during our times would understand these things?”

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In 1823 (or possibly 1824), Felix’s maternal grandmother, Bella Salomon, presented him with a gift that was to alter the course of his life: a copyist’s manuscript score of J.S. Bach’s St. Matthew Passion. While Felix had become acquainted with only a few excerpts from the work during his own membership in the Singakademie‘s chorus, his first encounter with the full score of one of Bach’s most profound and immensely conceived works, must have been nothing less than a revelation. (It is to Bella’s credit and musical sensibility that she recognized in the Passion, a work that was essentially unknown at that time, one of the most deeply spiritual works ever written; she apparently also endured some difficulty in wresting Zelter’s copy of the work from him in order to have it copied by Eduard Rietz for her grandson.)

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The score seized Felix’s imagination. Despite Bach’s generally unfavorable reputation at this time (he was regarded as little more than a musical “mathematician,” a reference to what would eventually be recognized as his extraordinary use of counterpoint and musical symmetry) and the numerous difficulties presented by the score (i.e., its complexity and the unfamiliarity of its language), Felix nevertheless conceived the idea of preparing the entire St. Matthew Passion for performance.

While Zelter himself had previously attempted to mount a performance of the Passion without success, this monumental task would require the efforts of an individual with the vision and genius to complete it — a task for which Mendelssohn was ideally suited.

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Five years later, Mendelssohn’s dream was realized: an abridged version of the work (including cuts and alterations of some material, compromises deemed necessary in the hope of making the work more accessible to audiences of the time), prepared by Mendelssohn, was also rehearsed and conducted by him in a performance at theSingakademie on March 11, 1829. For the first time in a century, the beauty of the St. Matthew Passion was revealed to the German public, eliciting a response not unlike that experienced by young Felix on seeing the work’s score for the first time.

This historic performance, due in large part to Mendelssohn’s vision (he was only fifteen when he first saw the score of the Passion, and twenty when his efforts to perform the work were realized), resulted in a full-scale revival and re-evaluation of Bach’s works throughout Germany and beyond, and a universal recognition of their genius and significance.

In his preparations for performing other works of Bach, Mendelssohn occasionally copied out instrumental parts himself. Among the few such parts to have survived are Mendelssohn’s manuscript parts for clarinet and bassoon for Bach’s Cantata, BWV 106, “Gottes Zeit ist die allerbeste Zeit,” which are held in the collections of the Library of Congress, and a representative image of which accompanies this essay.

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During the last years of his life, Mendelssohn paid further homage to J.S. Bach by preparing an edition of the latter’s organ works (published in London by Coventry and Hollier, 1845-46). Mendelssohn’s own Six Sonatas for organ, op. 65 (1845) not only renewed interest in the organ repertoire, and especially that of Bach, but also prompted the composition of new works for organ by other major composers. The revival of Bach’s works that Mendelssohn had initiated nearly twenty years beforehand therefore continued to be cultivated throughout the younger composer’s lifetime; the results of these selfless efforts are no less diminished in our day.

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Prayer: Thank you Lord for the genius, faith and musical legacies of both Mendelssohn and Bach, and that Mendelssohn, a Jewish believer in Yeshua, was instrumental in restoring the works of Bach back to public awareness. Thank you for the beauty of their music and its reflection of your divine love. Help us to appreciate their work, and even more, to appreciate you, O Lord, who gives creativity to your creatures, in response to your own divine creative power. In Yeshua’s name we pray. Amen.

http://www.colineatock.com/mendelssohn-antiquarianism.html

http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=11461

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/ihas/loc.natlib.ihas.200156436/default.html

http://www.takte-online.de/en/complete-ed/detail/browse/6/artikel/romantische-emotionen-mendelssohns-bearbeitung-von-bachs-matthaeus-passion/index.htm?tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=517&cHash=59a38366f17746fc7c9cac8609e746f9

https://www.academia.edu/1681212/Felix_Mendelssohn_the_Bach_revival_and_St._Paul_

http://www.takte-online.de/en/complete-ed/detail/browse/6/artikel/romantische-emotionen-mendelssohns-bearbeitung-von-bachs-matthaeus-passion/index.htm?tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=517&cHash=59a38366f17746fc7c9cac8609e746f9

Felix Mendelssohn performed Bach’s St Matthew Passion in Bellin in 1829 and 1841: on 11 March 1829, the Passion was heard again for the first time in 100 years. This performance marked the rediscovery of Bach as a composer, and a revival of his works began. As part of the “Historische Konzerte”, a performance of the Passion was given on 4 April 1841, Palm Sunday, in St Thomas’s Church, Leipzig, the place of its first performance.

The circumstances of the Berlin concert are exceptionally well documented. Felix Mendelssohn is said to have been given a copy of the score of the St Matthew Passion for Christmas 1823 or for his birthday on 3 February 1824 by his grandmother.

Rehearsals began on 2 February 1829 in the Singakademie. Orchestral rehearsals began on 6 March. The chorus comprised 158 singers. Mendelssohn conducted the performance from the grand piano with a baton. The performance was attended by the King with his court, the leading intellectuals of the day including Schleiermacher, Heine, Hegel, Spontini, Zelter and the best of Berlin society. On 21 March 1829, Bach’s birthday, a second performance took place. The work was heard a third time on Good Friday, 17 April 1829, conducted by Zelter.

The music used for both performances is equally well documented, and is preserved in the Bodleian Library in Oxford. As well as the copy of the score already mentioned, all the instrumental parts for the 1829 and 1841 performances, together with a set of choral parts for both choruses, have survived.

For the first performance, Mendelssohn made annotations in the score in pencil, and the few subsequent alterations for the second performance stand out in red coloured pencil and ordinary pencil as well as different handwriting styles.

Felix Mendelssohn shortened the St Matthew Passion for the Berlin performance by ten arias, four accompagnato recitatives and six chorales. For the 1841 performance he then reinstated five movements.

His basic idea with the arrangement was, on the one hand to produce a dramatic concentration of the content on the biblical text and, on the other hand, to stress the emotions in the sense of the romantic period, and to achieve this by omitting those parts which owed something to the baroque doctrine of affects and could barely be reconstructed a hundred years later.

The secco recitatives which Mendelssohn himself had accompanied at the piano in 1829, were allocated to two cellos (using double-stopping) and a double bass in the 1841 performance. It was precisely those recitatives which drive the content of the plot forward that Mendelssohn particularly arranged. As the copy of the score available to him contained no figuring, he entered the harmonisation of the recitatives which he desired in his own hand, his harmonisation differing fundamentally from Bach’s in many places. The occasional fermatas over individual notes, tempo indications, instructions regarding dynamics, articulation and accents, most notably in the part of Christus, also enhance the concentration of content. Mendelssohn’s arrangement is, in other words, designed with a view to bringing out the crucial moments, to give expression to human emotions in a heightened form.

Mendelssohn’s tempo instructions for the turba choruses should also be understood in this context. His aim was to portray the dramatic plot pointedly with people of “flesh and blood”. The opening and final choruses of the first part, “O Mensch, bewein dein Sünde groß”, contain most careful markings in the romantic style.

Bach’s orchestral scoring has been altered in a few movements. The use of clarinets, replacing the low oboes (oboe d’amore and oboe da caccia), is striking. Mendelssohn no longer gave the organ a prominent function, as the secco recitatives were either accompanied by him at the piano, or by the cellos and double bass. The organ was used in the chorales and at selected points in a few arias and choruses as an additional tone colour.

The edition now published by Bärenreiter comprises:

  • full score, including the two versions from 1829 and 1841; Critical Commentary, a list of variant readings and a concordance to facilitate the performance of both versions
  • vocal score for soloists and choir
  • complete orchestral material

With Mendelssohn’s arrangement, a version is now available lasting just over two hours, which provides an interesting alternative for present day audiences.

Klaus Winkler
(translation: Elisabeth Robinson)
from: [t]akte 1/2009

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About richardsh

Messianic Jewish teacher in UK
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