26 September 1348 Pope Clement VI Exonerates Jews from Causing the Black Death #otdimjh

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Pope Clement VI (Latin: Clemens VI; 1291 – 6 December 1352), born Pierre Roger, was pope from 7 May 1342 to his death in 1352. He was the fourth Avignon pope. Clement is most notable as the pope who reigned during the time of the Black Death (1348–1350), during which he granted remission of sins to all who died of the plague.

pogrom-torturing-Jews

The Black death (Black plague, Great Pestilence) first visited Europe about 1348, killing between 30 and 60% of Europe’s population (about 25-50 million deaths). Usually lost in the descriptions of the catastrophe is the fact that it was also an occasion for horrific pogroms that killed large numbers of Jews. Even where records exist, it is impossible to determine what percentage of Jews who died were victims of the plague, and how many died in persecutions and pogroms.

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Pogroms erupted throughout Europe. Clement issued two papal bulls in 1348 (6 July and 26 September), the latter named Quamvis Perfidiam (“although the treachery [we condemn]”), which condemned the violence and denounced the allegation that the Jews were responsible by poisoning the wells, stating that “certain Christians, seduced by that liar, the devil, are imputing the pestilence to poisoning by Jews.”

black_death

This imputation and the massacre of Jews in consequence were described by the Pope as “a horrible thing”. He tried to convince Christians that “since this pestilence is all but universal everywhere, and by a mysterious decree of God has afflicted, and continues to afflict, both Jews and many other nations throughout the diverse regions of the earth to whom a common existence with Jews is unknown (the charge) that the Jews have provided the cause or the occasion for such a crime is without plausibility.”

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The emperors Charles IV and Peter IV of Aragon also tried to protect the Jews from the accusation. The physician Konrad of Megenberg in his Buch der Natur stated:

“But I know that there were more Jews in Vienna than in any other German city familiar to me, and so many of them died of the plague that they were obliged to enlarge their cemetery. To have brought this on themselves would have been folly on their part.”

However, all these appeals to reason were ineffective. The massacres of the Jews continued, and Jewish property was confiscated.

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Prayer: Lord, we recognise the panic that was created across Europe by the Black Death, and the hysteria that led to the accusation that the Jewish people were responsible. Help us to learn from this not to demonise “the other” in our midst, whether they be Jewish, Palestinian, Supersessionist or Christian Zionist, Ultra-Orthodox or Secular – or even those we are closest to. In Yeshua’s name we pray. Amen.

http://www.academia.dk/MedHist/Sygdomme/pest-samfunds-folger.php

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Clement_VI

For all our brothers, the archbishops and bishops and our son beloved chosen, abbots, priors, deacons, senior, archdeacons, vicars, secular clergy, officials, presidents and other prelates of churches and monasteries and their deputies , and ecclesiastical persons, secular and regular, and even chapters and convents churches and aforementioned monasteries, all exempt and non-exempt, the Cistercians, Cluny and Premonstratensian orders, all other orders of St. Benedict and St. Augustine, Greetings etc. While we can, rightly hate the treachery of the Jews (who, persevering in their stubbornness, do not care to understand the words of the prophets and the secrets of their writings and join the new Christian faith and Hi) but – being aware that our Savior worthy to choose the Jewish tradition in which, for the salvation of the human race, he took a mortal flesh – for this reason it is normal that we cherish these same Jews because of the humanity. As they seek help our protection and mercy of Christian piety, we, following in the footsteps of Calixte, Eugene, Alexander, Clement, Celestin, Innocent, Grégoire, Nicolas, Nicolas Honorius and IIII, and our Roman Pontiffs predecessors of happy memory, we give them the shield of our protection, ordering, among other things, that no Christian can in no way cause injury or death of these Jews without receiving the judgment of the lord or official of land or region in which they live, they should not take their money from them or require compulsory service, except for the things that, in ancient times, they were used to doing; and that if someone, although knowing the content of such a decree attempts to act against him, he endangers his title and office, or he must be struck by a final sentence of excommunication, unless he takes care to correct his presumption by a worthy satisfaction, as contained in these letters. However recently a public outcry (or more accurately, a rumor nasty) came to our attention that some Christians mistakenly blame the plague (which God afflicts the Christian people, caused by the sins of the people) come from poisons Jews deceived by the devil – who in their own impious temerity killed some of these Jews, regardless of age or gender, and that although these Jews were ready to submit to the judgment of a court competent to About the fallacy of such a crime, even if the attack of these Christians has not been calmed by it, but because of this, their anger was filled even more, since their error appeared to be approved, as that there was no opposition. And although we might wish that these same Jews are guilty by participating in such great indignation (whose adequate punishment, dignified and severe, could hardly be thought) and had to be struck down by a sentence; despite everything, because in many and various parts of the world who are not familiar cohabitation with these Jews, the plague everywhere afflicted and afflicts the community because of the secret judgment of God, thus proving that the aforementioned Jews are responsible only not stand as an explanation or cause of great indignation tellle. We order you therefore by all these apostolic writings that each of you has been asked about this was to – in your churches for the solemnities of the Mass, while people are gathered for divine services – warn those who are subject to you, clergy and laity, on pain of excommunication (which you will receive from there, if you do not) and you must expressly instruct them not to presume on their own authority (or more accurately, their own recklessness) enter, hit, injure or kill these Jews, or to force them to compulsory service for them; but if they were to be in a lawsuit against them, either on these or any other case, they had to continue with the rule of law in the presence of judges competent, who – so they can take action against these or other excesses of these same Jews, as is just – we take away their powerless by these present letters. These present letters are no longer in force after one year. Given at Avignon, the sixth calends of October, in the seventh year of our pontificate.

Universis fratribus archiepiscopis et episcopis et dilectis filiis electis, abbatibus, prioribus, decanis, prepositis, archidiaconis, archipresbiteris, plebanis, officialibus, rectoribus, et aliis ecclesiarum et monasteriorum prelatis et eorum vicesgerentibus, ac personis ecclesiasticis, secularibus et regularibus, necnon ecclesiarum et monasteriorum predictorum capitulis et conventibus exemptis et non exemptis, Cisterciensis, Cluniacensis, Premonstratensis, Sanctorum Benedicti et Augustini et aliorum ordinum quorumcumque, salutem etc. Quamvis perfidiam Iudeorum, qui in sua duritia perdurantes, prophetarum verba et suarum scripturarum archana cognoscere atque ad Christiane fidei et salutis noticiam pervenire non curant, merito detestemur, attendentes tamen, quod Iudeos eosdem ex eo, quod Salvator noster Iudaicam stirpem, ex qua pro salute humani generis mortalitatis carnem indueret, eligere fuit dignatus, humanitatis causa fovere nos convenit, eis invocantibus defensionis nostre presidium et Christiane mansuetudinem pietatis, nos felicis recordationis Calixti, Eugenii, Alexandri, Clementis, Celestini, Innocentii, Gregorii, Nicolai, Honorii et Nicolai IIII, Romanorum pontificum, predecessorum nostrorum, vestigiis inherentes, protectionis nostre clipeum duximus indulgendum, inter cetera statuentes, ut nullus Christianus eorundem Iudeorum personas sine iudicio domini aut officialis terre vel regionis, in qua habitant, vulnerare aut occidere, vel suas illis pecunias auferre sive ab eis coacta servicia exigere, nisi ea que ipsi temporibus facere consueverunt preteritis, presumeret ullo modo, et quod, si quis, huiusmodi tenore cognito, contra illud venire temptaret, honoris et officii sui periculum pateretur aut pleceteretur excommunicationis ultione sententie, nisi presumptionem suam digna satisfactione corrigere procuraret, prout in eisdem litteris plenius continetur. Nuper autem ad nostrum fama publica, sed infamia verius, perduxit auditum, quod nonnulli Christiani pestem, qua Deus populum Christianum ipsius peccatis populi provocatus affligit, Iudeorum falso tossicationibus, seducente dyabolo, imputantes, nonnullos ex Iudeis ipsis, temeritate propria, non deferentes etati vel sexui, impie perimerunt, quodque, licet iidem Iudei super huiusmodi impostura facinoris parati sint subire iudicium coram iudice competenti, ob hoc tamen Christianorum ipsorum impetus non tepescit, sed eo furor sevit in maius eorundem, quo videtur error eorum, dum eis non resistitur, approbari. Et quamvis Iudeos eosdem, ubi culpabiles aut conscii forsan essent tanti flagitii, cui vix posset excogitari pena sufficens, digna et severa, vellemus animadversione percelli, quia tamen per diversa mundi climata, Iudeos ipsos et alias nationes plurimas, que cohabitationem Iudeorum eorundem non noverant, pestis hec ubique fere communis afflixit, occulto Dei iudicio, et affligit, et proinde verisimilitudo non recipit, quod Iudei predicti occasionem tanto flagicio prestiterint sive causam, universitati vestre per apostolica scripta mandamus, quatenus singuli vestrum, qui super hoc fueritis requisiti, in ecclesiis vestris intra missarum solempnia, cum populis inibi convenerit ad divina, subditos vobis, clerum et populum, moneatis eisque super excommunicationis pena, quam feratis ex tunc in contrarium facientes, expressius iniungatis, quod Iudeos eosdem occasione huiusmodi auctoritate seu verius temeritate propria, capere, percutere, vulnerare aut occidere, vel ab eis coacta servitia exigere non presumant; sed si quam, vel super hiis aut super quibusvis aliis negociis, causam habeant contra eos, illam coram iudicibus competentibus, quibus, quominus ipsi super hiis aut quibusvis aliis ipsorum Iudeorum excessibus possint contra Iudeos eosdem, prout iustum fuerit, procedere, nullam per presentes adimimus potestatem, ordine iudiciario prosequantur; presentibus post annum minime valituris. Dat. Avinione, VI Kalendas Octobris, anno septimo.

Torturing  on the wheel during the plague.

Quamvis perfidiam by *Clement VI in 1348, addressed to various prelates, urged the protection of Jews against the accusation that they had brought on the Black Death by poisoning the wells. It was an instance of specific application of protection in the face of a threat to Jewish life.

Repeated outbreaks of plague, of lesser virulence, occurred every century or so thereafter until the 19th century. The last big outbreak took place in the 17th century, but apparently none was as devastating as the first. The persecution of the Jews we For a long time, the Black plague was thought to have been caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, carried by fleas (xenopsylla cheopis) on the backs of rats in the holds of ships, a disease commonly known as Bubonic Plague, which infected Asia in the 19th century. More recently, it has been suggested that it may have been a plague of viral hemorrhagic fever, similar to Ebola, carried by humans.

The Black death of 1348 caused a massive upheaval in European society. Towns and villages were left without rulers and effective police. Fields lay fallow for want of workers. There was no understanding of the causes of illness, and no intellectual or philosophic framework for dealing with any aspect of life other than religion. Accordingly, the plague could be viewed as punishment for sins, or blamed on lepers or Jews.

The Black Death rendered the forces of law and order helpless. As it did not occur to the Jews to undertake their own self-defense, the results of the pogroms of this period were especially catastrophic.

pogrom: Torturing on the wheel

Torturing on the wheel during the plague.

Jews were first tortured for spreading the Black Death in September 1348, in the Castle of Chillon on Lake Geneva. The “confessions” indicate that their accusers wished to prove that the Jews had set out to poison the wells and food “so as to kill and destroy the whole of Christianity” (“ad interficiendam et destruendam totam legem Christianam”). The disease was supposedly spread by a Jew of Savoy. He was allegedly ordered to do so by a rabbi who told him:

“See, I give you a little package, half a span in size, which contains a preparation of poison on venom in a narrow, stitched leathern bag. This you are to distribute among the wells, the cisterns, and the springs about Venice and the other places where you go, in order to poison the people who use the water. …”

On Oct. 3, 1348, during the summing up of a trial, an allegation providing a motive for the total destruction of Jewry was made; it was asserted that “before their end they said on their Law that it is true that all Jews, from the age of seven, cannot excuse themselves of this (crime), since all of them in their totality were cognizant and are guilty of the above actions:”

(“asseruerunt praefati Judaei ante eorum ultimum supplicium per legem suam esse vera dicentes quod omnes Judaei a septem annis circum non possint super hoc se excusare, quoniam universaliter sciant omnes, et sint culpabiles in dicto facto”).

These “confessions” were sent to various cities in Germany. The accusation that the Jews had poisoned the wells spread there like wildfire, fanned by the general atmosphere of terror. The patricians of Strasbourg attempted to defend the Jews at a meeting of representatives of the Alsatian towns at Benfeld, but the majority rejected their plea, arguing:

“If you are not afraid of poisoning, why have you yourselves covered and guarded your wells?”

The defamation, killings, and expulsions spread throughout Christian Spain, France, and Germany, to Poland-Lithuania, affecting about 300 Jewish communities.

On September 26, 1348, Pope Clement VI issued a bull in Avignon, Quamvis Perfidiam, denouncing this allegation, stating that “certain Christians, seduced by that liar, the devil, are imputing the pestilence to poisoning by Jews.” This imputation and the massacre of Jews in consequence were described by the Pope as “a horrible thing”. He tried to convince Christians that “since this pestilence is all but universal everywhere, and by a mysterious decree of God has afflicted, and continues to afflict, both Jews and many other nations throughout the diverse regions of the earth to whom a common existence with Jews is unknown (the charge) that the Jews have provided the cause or the occasion for such a crime is without plausibility.”

The emperors Charles IV and Peter IV of Aragon also tried to protect the Jews from the accusation. The physician Konrad of Megenberg in his Buch der Natur stated:

“But I know that there were more Jews in Vienna than in any other German city familiar to me, and so many of them died of the plague that they were obliged to enlarge their cemetery. To have brought this on themselves would have been folly on their part.”

However, all these appeals to reason were ineffective. The massacres of the Jews continued, and Jewish property was confiscated.

Despite his policy of protecting the Jews, in 1350 the emperor Charles IV formally absolved the burghers of Cheb (Eger) in Bohemia for the killings and robbery they had committed among the Jewish population. In doing so, he stated:

“Forgiveness is (granted) for every transgression involving the slaying and destruction of Jews which has been committed without the positive knowledge of the leading citizens, or in their ignorance, or in any other fashion whatsoever.”

By this time it was understood by nearly everyone that the accusation that Jews had spread the plague was false.

Mainz had been the site of massacres during the Crusades. Now the massacres returned. To avoid torture, the Jews reportedly set fire to their homes and to the Jewish streets. About 6,000 Jews reportedly perished in the flames. This also occurred at Frankfurt am Main. In Strasbourg, 2,000 Jews were burned on a wooden scaffold in the Jewish cemetery. (Source: Encyclopedia Judaica: Black Death)

The well poisoning libel was added to the repertoire of anti-Semitic lore. As with the Crusades, the aftermath of the black death massacres only increased the vehemence of anti-Semitism. Many Jews migrated to Poland and Lithuania, others remained in Central Europe and stubbornly rebuilt their communities.

Ami Isseroff

March 31, 2009

http://www.zionism-israel.com/dic/Black_Death_Jews.htm

http://www.cn-telma.fr/relmin/extrait87469/

Quamvis perfidiam Iudeorum

Auteur

Clemens VI

Titre en français

Quamvis perfidiam Iudeorum

Titre descriptif

La perfidie des juifs

Type de texte

Bulle pontificale

Texte

Universis fratribus archiepiscopis et episcopis et dilectis filiis electis, abbatibus, prioribus, decanis, prepositis, archidiaconis, archipresbiteris, plebanis, officialibus, rectoribus, et aliis ecclesiarum et monasteriorum prelatis et eorum vicesgerentibus, ac personis ecclesiasticis, secularibus et regularibus, necnon ecclesiarum et monasteriorum predictorum capitulis et conventibus exemptis et non exemptis, Cisterciensis, Cluniacensis, Premonstratensis, Sanctorum Benedicti et Augustini et aliorum ordinum quorumcumque, salutem etc. Quamvis perfidiam Iudeorum, qui in sua duritia perdurantes, prophetarum verba et suarum scripturarum archana cognoscere atque ad Christiane fidei et salutis noticiam pervenire non curant, merito detestemur, attendentes tamen, quod Iudeos eosdem ex eo, quod Salvator noster Iudaicam stirpem, ex qua pro salute humani generis mortalitatis carnem indueret, eligere fuit dignatus, humanitatis causa fovere nos convenit, eis invocantibus defensionis nostre presidium et Christiane mansuetudinem pietatis, nos felicis recordationis Calixti, Eugenii, Alexandri, Clementis, Celestini, Innocentii, Gregorii, Nicolai, Honorii et Nicolai IIII, Romanorum pontificum, predecessorum nostrorum, vestigiis inherentes, protectionis nostre clipeum duximus indulgendum, inter cetera statuentes, ut nullus Christianus eorundem Iudeorum personas sine iudicio domini aut officialis terre vel regionis, in qua habitant, vulnerare aut occidere, vel suas illis pecunias auferre sive ab eis coacta servicia exigere, nisi ea que ipsi temporibus facere consueverunt preteritis, presumeret ullo modo, et quod, si quis, huiusmodi tenore cognito, contra illud venire temptaret, honoris et officii sui periculum pateretur aut pleceteretur excommunicationis ultione sententie, nisi presumptionem suam digna satisfactione corrigere procuraret, prout in eisdem litteris plenius continetur. Nuper autem ad nostrum fama publica, sed infamia verius, perduxit auditum, quod nonnulli Christiani pestem, qua Deus populum Christianum ipsius peccatis populi provocatus affligit, Iudeorum falso tossicationibus, seducente dyabolo, imputantes, nonnullos ex Iudeis ipsis, temeritate propria, non deferentes etati vel sexui, impie perimerunt, quodque, licet iidem Iudei super huiusmodi impostura facinoris parati sint subire iudicium coram iudice competenti, ob hoc tamen Christianorum ipsorum impetus non tepescit, sed eo furor sevit in maius eorundem, quo videtur error eorum, dum eis non resistitur, approbari. Et quamvis Iudeos eosdem, ubi culpabiles aut conscii forsan essent tanti flagitii, cui vix posset excogitari pena sufficens, digna et severa, vellemus animadversione percelli, quia tamen per diversa mundi climata, Iudeos ipsos et alias nationes plurimas, que cohabitationem Iudeorum eorundem non noverant, pestis hec ubique fere communis afflixit, occulto Dei iudicio, et affligit, et proinde verisimilitudo non recipit, quod Iudei predicti occasionem tanto flagicio prestiterint sive causam, universitati vestre per apostolica scripta mandamus, quatenus singuli vestrum, qui super hoc fueritis requisiti, in ecclesiis vestris intra missarum solempnia, cum populis inibi convenerit ad divina, subditos vobis, clerum et populum, moneatis eisque super excommunicationis pena, quam feratis ex tunc in contrarium facientes, expressius iniungatis, quod Iudeos eosdem occasione huiusmodi auctoritate seu verius temeritate propria, capere, percutere, vulnerare aut occidere, vel ab eis coacta servitia exigere non presumant; sed si quam, vel super hiis aut super quibusvis aliis negociis, causam habeant contra eos, illam coram iudicibus competentibus, quibus, quominus ipsi super hiis aut quibusvis aliis ipsorum Iudeorum excessibus possint contra Iudeos eosdem, prout iustum fuerit, procedere, nullam per presentes adimimus potestatem, ordine iudiciario prosequantur; presentibus post annum minime valituris. Dat. Avinione, VI Kalendas Octobris, anno septimo.

Langue

Latin

Source du texte original

  1. Simonsohn, ed.The Apostolic See and the Jews, vol. 1,Documents: 492-1404 (Toronto, 1988), 397-98.

Datation

  • Date fixe :1348

Traduction française

Pour tous nos frères, les archevêques et évêques et nos fils choisis bien-aimés, les abbés, prieurs, les diacres, les supérieurs, archidiacres, vicaires, clergé séculier, les fonctionnaires, recteurs et autres prélats des églises et des monastères et leurs adjoints, et les personnes ecclésiastiques, séculières et régulières, et même aux chapitres et couvents des églises et des monastères précités, tous exemptés et non exemptés, les ordres cisterciens, clunisiens et prémontrés, et tous les autres ordres de saint Benoît et saint Augustin, salutations, etc . Bien que nous puissions, à juste titre, détester la perfidie des juifs (qui, persévérant dans leur entêtement, ne se soucient pas de comprendre les paroles des prophètes et les secrets de leurs écrits et de rejoindre la nouvelle foi chrétienne et le Salut) mais – étant conscient que notre Sauveur a jugé digne de choisir la lignée juive dans laquelle, pour le salut de la race humaine, il a pris une chair mortelle – pour cette raison, il est normal que nous chérissons ces mêmes juifs pour cause de l’humanité. Comme ils demandent l’aide de notre protection et la clémence de la piété chrétienne, nous, en suivant les traces de Calixte, Eugène, Alexandre, Clément, Célestin, Innocent, Grégoire, Nicolas, Honorius et Nicolas IIII, Pontifes des Romains et nos prédécesseurs d’heureuse mémoire, nous leur accordons le bouclier de notre protection, ordonnant, entre autre, qu’aucun chrétien ne puisse en aucune façon blesser ou tuer quelqu’un de ces mêmes juifs sans recevoir le jugement du seigneur ou d’un fonctionnaire de la terre ou de la région dans laquelle ils vivent, ils ne devaient pas prendre leur argent ou exiger d’eux le service obligatoire, sauf pour les choses qui, dans les temps anciens, ils étaient habitués à faire ; et que, si quelqu’un, bien que connaissant la teneur d’un tel décret, tente d’agir contre lui, il met en danger son titre et son office, ou bien il doit être frappé par une condamnation définitive d’excommunication, à moins qu’il prenne soin de corriger sa présomption par une digne satisfaction, comme cela est contenu dans ces mêmes lettres. Toutefois récemment, une clameur publique (ou plus exactement, une vilaine rumeur) est venue à notre attention, selon laquelle certains chrétiens blâment à tort que la peste (avec laquelle Dieu afflige le peuple chrétien, provoquée par les péchés du peuple) provient des poisons des juifs trompés par le diable – qui dans leur propre témérité impie a tué certains de ces juifs, sans distinction d’âge ou de sexe, et que, bien que ces mêmes juifs étaient prêts à se soumettre au jugement d’un juge compétent à propos de la fausseté d’un tel crime, même si l’attaque de ces chrétiens n’a pas été calmée par cela : mais à cause de cela, leur colère s’emplit encore plus, puisque leur erreur a semblé être approuvée, tant qu’il n’y a pas eu d’opposition. Et bien que nous pourrions le souhaiter que ces mêmes juifs se soient rendus coupables en participant à une si grande indignation (pour lesquels une peine suffisante, digne et sévère, pouvait à peine être pensée) et qu’ils devaient être foudroyés par une peine ; malgré tout, car dans de nombreuses et diverses régions du monde qui ne connaissent pas la cohabitation avec ces mêmes juifs, cette peste a partout affligé et afflige la communauté en raison du jugement secret de Dieu, donc la preuve que les juifs susmentionnés sont responsables ne tient pas comme explication ou cause d’une tellle grande indignation. Nous vous ordonnons par conséquent par tous ces écrits apostoliques que chacun de vous qui a été interrogé sur cela devait – dans vos églises pendant les solennités de la messe, tandis que les gens y sont réunis pour les services divins – avertir ceux qui sont soumis à vous, clercs et laïcs, sur la peine d’excommunication (que vous recevrez à partir de là, si vous faites autrement) et vous devez plus expressément leur enjoindre de ne pas présumer de leur propre autorité (ou plus exactement, leur propre témérité) de saisir, frapper, blesser ou tuer ces mêmes juifs, ou de les contraindre au service obligatoire pour eux ; mais s’ils devaient être dans un procès contre eux, que ce soit sur ces questions ou sur tout autre affaire, ils devaient poursuivre par la primauté du droit en présence dejuges compétents, de qui – afin qu’ils puissent engager des poursuites contre ceux-ci ou pour d’autres excès de ces mêmes juifs, comme cela est juste – nous ne leur enlevons aucun pouvoir par ces présentes lettres. Ces présentes lettres ne sont plus en vigueur après un an. Donné à Avignon, aux sixièmes calendes d’octobre, dans la septième année de notre pontificat.

Source traduction française

  1. Masset

Résumé et contexte

Écrit alors que la peste noire faisait rage, cette bulle disculpe les juifs de la responsabilité d’avoir causé la peste. Clément répondit, ainsi, aux accusations selon lesquelles ils étaient la source de la peste en faisant valoir qu’ils étaient morts tout comme l’étaient les chrétiens. Il a en outre déclaré que la peste était un jugement de Dieu. À bien des égards, la bulle de Clément rappelle les protections de longue date de la Sicut Iudeis, rajoutant seulement les origines juives de Jésus à la liste des raisons pour lesquelles les juifs devaient bénéficier d’une protection contre la violence pure et simple. Il ordonne aux prélats chrétiens d’avertir leurs sujets que toute personne qui saisit, blesse ou tue des juifs, ou les contraint au service devait être excommuniée. Les chrétiens devaient présenter leurs plaintes devant les tribunaux, plutôt que d’agir par la violence.

Signification historique

Les dégâts engendrés par la peste noire et les bouleversements qui suivirent sont, de toute évidence, bien documentés. Il y eut des millions de morts, et la plaie a laissé une marque indélébile sur la société et la culture de la fin du Moyen Âge. Des histoires circulèrent, disant que cette épidémie était le résultat d’un complot juif en vue d’empoisonner les chrétiens, généralement en s’en prennant aux puits. La lettre de Clément a peut-être ralenti, mais n’a certainement pas arrêté, ces rumeurs ou les agressions des communautés juives. Les juifs, dans ce qui est aujourd’hui la Suisse, confessèrent, sous la torture, avoir empoisonné des puits en octobre de la même année, et dans certaines villes, comme à Strasbourg en février 1349, les communautés juives furent détruites en conséquence. Néanmoins, Clément a réitéré les principes anciens de la Sicut Iudeis à un moment particulier et dur à la fois dans l’histoire de l’Eglise, et dans celle des relations entre chrétiens et juifs. Quel que soit son impact pratique dans le milieu du XIVe siècle, c’est sans doute l’une des rares bulles papales à mériter une mention dans la fiction moderne. Voir Iain Pears The Dream of Scipio

Textes apparentés inclus dans le corpus

Manuscrits

  • Vatican, Archivum Secretum Apostolicum, Reg. Vat. 142, fol. 67v.
  • Vatican, Archivum Secretum Apostolicum, Reg. Vat. 244L, fol. 17r-18v.

Editions

  • Deprez and G. Mollat, eds.Clement VI: Lettres closes, patentes et curiales, vol. 2 (1960), 491-92.
  • Simonsohn, ed.The Apostolic See and the Jews, vol. 1, Documents: 492-1404 (Toronto, 1988), 397-98.

Mots-clés

accusation ; pétition ; violence

Auteur de la notice

Joanna   Carraway

Collaborateurs de la notice

Jessie   Sherwood  :  collaborateur pour le commentaire

Claire   Chauvin  :  traduction

Comment citer cette notice

Notice n°87469, projet RELMIN, «Le statut légal des minorités religieuses dans l’espace euro-méditerranéen (Ve– XVesiècle)»

Edition électronique Telma, IRHT, Institut de Recherche et d’Histoire des Textes – Orléans http://www.cn-telma.fr/relmin/extrait87469/.

For all our brothers, the archbishops and bishops and our son beloved chosen, abbots, priors, deacons, senior, archdeacons, vicars, secular clergy, officials, presidents and other prelates of churches and monasteries and their deputies , and ecclesiastical persons, secular and regular, and even chapters and convents churches and aforementioned monasteries, all exempt and non-exempt, the Cistercians, Cluny and Premonstratensian orders, all other orders of St. Benedict and St. Augustine, Greetings etc. While we can, rightly hate the treachery of the Jews (who, persevering in their stubbornness, do not care to understand the words of the prophets and the secrets of their writings and join the new Christian faith and Hi) but – being aware that our Savior worthy to choose the Jewish tradition in which, for the salvation of the human race, he took a mortal flesh – for this reason it is normal that we cherish these same Jews because of the humanity. As they seek help our protection and mercy of Christian piety, we, following in the footsteps of Calixte, Eugene, Alexander, Clement, Celestin, Innocent, Grégoire, Nicolas, Nicolas Honorius and IIII, and our Roman Pontiffs predecessors of happy memory, we give them the shield of our protection, ordering, among other things, that no Christian can in no way cause injury or death of these Jews without receiving the judgment of the lord or official of land or region in which they live, they should not take their money from them or require compulsory service, except for the things that, in ancient times, they were used to doing; and that if someone, although knowing the content of such a decree attempts to act against him, he endangers his title and office, or he must be struck by a final sentence of excommunication, unless he takes care to correct his presumption by a worthy satisfaction, as contained in these letters. However recently a public outcry (or more accurately, a rumor nasty) came to our attention that some Christians mistakenly blame the plague (which God afflicts the Christian people, caused by the sins of the people) come from poisons Jews deceived by the devil – who in their own impious temerity killed some of these Jews, regardless of age or gender, and that although these Jews were ready to submit to the judgment of a court competent to About the fallacy of such a crime, even if the attack of these Christians has not been calmed by it, but because of this, their anger was filled even more, since their error appeared to be approved, as that there was no opposition. And although we might wish that these same Jews are guilty by participating in such great indignation (whose adequate punishment, dignified and severe, could hardly be thought) and had to be struck down by a sentence; despite everything, because in many and various parts of the world who are not familiar cohabitation with these Jews, the plague everywhere afflicted and afflicts the community because of the secret judgment of God, thus proving that the aforementioned Jews are responsible only not stand as an explanation or cause of great indignation tellle. We order you therefore by all these apostolic writings that each of you has been asked about this was to – in your churches for the solemnities of the Mass, while people are gathered for divine services – warn those who are subject to you, clergy and laity, on pain of excommunication (which you will receive from there, if you do not) and you must expressly instruct them not to presume on their own authority (or more accurately, their own recklessness) enter, hit, injure or kill these Jews, or to force them to compulsory service for them; but if they were to be in a lawsuit against them, either on these or any other case, they had to continue with the rule of law in the presence of judges competent, who – so they can take action against these or other excesses of these same Jews, as is just – we take away their powerless by these present letters. These present letters are no longer in force after one year. Given at Avignon, the sixth calends of October, in the seventh year of our pontificate.

About richardsh

Messianic Jewish teacher in UK
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One Response to 26 September 1348 Pope Clement VI Exonerates Jews from Causing the Black Death #otdimjh

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