16 September 1747 Benedict XIV issues “Apostolici Ministerii munus” preventing the divorce of Jewish converts #otdimjh

L_Middle_Ages_-_Pope_Power

BENEDICT XIV (PROSPERO LAMBERTINI) was the two hundred and fifty-fourth pope; born at Bologna in 1675; elected pope Aug. 17, 1740; died May 3, 1758. This pope, who graciously accepted a dedication from Voltaire and was full of amenity toward all heretics, thought it his duty to pursue by all means the conversion of the Jews. In 1747 he issued a bull regulating Jewish conversions. According to this bull all children above seven years of age could be baptized without the consent of their parents. A Christian nurse was allowed to baptize her Jewish charge against the will of the parents. One of the latter could baptize the child contrary to the wish of the other; and the grandfather could baptize his fatherless grandchild against the will of its mother.

BritLibCottonNeroDiiFol183vPersecutedJews

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By a decree dated Sept. 16 of the same year, Benedict forbade converted married Jews to divorce their wives according to Jewish law [in order that they be confined for 40 days in the ‘house of converts’ to seek to have them convert with their spouse]. At the request of the Jewish community of Rome (presented in Feb., 1751) to allow its members to frequent the market and to live outside the ghetto, Benedict renewed the severe project elaborated by the Inquisition in 1732, according to which a Jew was not permitted to pass a single night away from the ghetto.

Pope-Benedict-XIV

Notwithstanding this, Benedict was far from being hostile to the Jews. On all occasions, except in the matter of conversion, he showed sympathy with them. When persecutions broke out in Poland he energetically defended the Jews and enjoined the Polish archbishop and primate to protect them.

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In Italy Benedict was especially hostile to Hebrew books. The censor Constanzi prepared in 1748 a new list of forbidden books. Benedict ordered all those enumerated therein to be seized and confiscated; and on Sept. 15, 1751, this decree was enforced. It having been rumored that the Jews smuggled prohibited books into the ghetto, Benedict ordered a strict search of the houses, with the result that a general confiscation ensued. Later he gave directions to Constanzi to revise the “Sefer ha-Ziḳḳuḳ” (Book of Expurgation) and to add to it an Index Expurgatorius, comprising a new series of books to be forbidden.

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In Holy Week of 1756 the body of a child was found at Jampol, Poland, and a blood accusation followed by persecutions ensued. To free themselves and all other Jews from the oft-repeated accusation, the Polish Jews sent Jacob Selek to Benedict to procure an official exposure of the falsehood of the charge. Benedict charged the counselor of the holy office, Lorenzo Ganganelli—later Pope Clement XIV.—to report on this subject; and on March 21, 1758, the acquittal of the Jews was pronounced.

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Prayer: Lord, help us to learn the lessons from these times, and the treatment of Jewish people at the hands of the Roman Catholic church. We long for the day when there will be no conflict between being Jewish and believing in Yeshua, as both church and Israel will see the indissoluble connection between them, through the Messiah of Israel and saviour of all nations. In Yeshua’s name we pray. Amen.

Bibliography:

  • Literaturblatt des Orients, 1841, p. 259;
  • Revue Orientale, iii. 157;
  • Revue des Etudes Juives, iii. 107, 108;
  • Berliner, Censur und Confiscation, p. 25;
  • Vogelstein and Rieger, Gesch. der Juden in Rom, ii. 241-247;
  • Popper, The Censorship of Hebrew Books, pp. 120, 126.

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http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/2925-benedict-xiv-prospero-lambertini

https://www.academia.edu/6380122/Benedict_XIV_and_His_Sacramental_Polity_on_the_Eastern_Churches_1740-1758_Nicolaus_-_Rivista_di_teologia_ecumenico-patristica_39_2012_1-2_pp._117-144

https://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/anti-semitism/Pope_Benedict_on_Jews.html

https://play.google.com/store/books/details?id=GUZGAAAAcAAJ&rdid=book-GUZGAAAAcAAJ&rdot=1

https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=Super+abusu+libelli+Repudii+Conversorum+Judaismo+ad+Fidem+Catholicam.&oq=Super+abusu+libelli+Repudii+Conversorum+Judaismo+ad+Fidem+Catholicam.&aqs=chrome..69i57j69i64l2.1417j0j7&sourceid=chrome&es_sm=119&ie=UTF-8

http://books.googleusercontent.com/books/content?req=AKW5QadFKBEfB8Iw8ObRxnIoUwVDG7I9mLo5w1BwKLnlLQq6jTsewy_FVGP3GBFL84kt5ZMkIx2FepjU-U-yK2KUw3w7OljFQ3wOGxtrDv4A54rfuOqraJ6OfG2dahtVhqkU2wF6qkGNy1l0jvz4EtkFvFskfxwU6Zo0dNn3VKprrilzLQvfFByb-viNIlLeiAY21k2vUEcPdtug3yE9t8L9yhHUiMUXml49JbaLZCoJ94XPDbcYYLw-B7OJAkKz4UIFapsiSwYr

APostolici Ministerii munus Nobis licet immerentibus commissum assidue Nos ex citât atque impellit, ut sollicito studio, ac vigili cura abusus pravasque consuctudines siquas in Ecclesia Dei, vel hominum infirmitate vel malitia, certò novimus irrepsisse Pastoralis Providentiae sollicitudine compescamus congruisque adhibitis remediis, quo citius fieri potest, aboleamus. Nuper quidem Nobis relatum est, certîsque probationlbus manifesté comprobatum quod aliqui Hebratornm, qui ad Christianam Fidem conversi uxorem habent renuentem Christianam veritatem amplecti, minime dubitant, posteaquam ejuratá Judaicá perfidiâ sacro lavacro abluti sunt solcmni professione se ad Christi Fidem adstrinxerunt reverti sacrilego ausu ad Judscorum Castra, feu Vicum, vulgò il Ghetto, ibique Rabbinico ritu, Judaicis superstitionibus damnaiidisque observationibus libellum repudii uxoribus concedere, vel etiam extra Judarorum domicilium cWam Notario Testibufque Christianis cumdem libellum repudii uxoribus da re, ut liberam eis nubendi alteri Viro potestatem faciant. Moyfes quidem in Deuteronomio cap. 24. ita scriptum reliquit Si acceperít bomo uxorem babuerit eam non invenerit gratiam ante oculos ejus propter aliquam feedita

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tetn feribet libellum repudii dabit in manu illius dimittet eam de domo sua. Utrum verò ha*c dumtaxat indulgenria quardam fueric ad majus malum evitandum adeout qui daret acciperetque repudium, liber quidem peena effet non autem culpa; an autem dispenfatio potius eslet Deo concesla ob cordis Hebrarorum duritiam adeout qui libellum repudii mijtteret, qua* missum reciperet, cul pa, pœna exemptus foret, eisque minimè vetitum eslet ad aliud matrimonium validé ac licite contrahendum procedere, dissident inter se veteres, recentioresque Theologi cum alii primam, alii alteram opinionem fequantur. Verùm quidquid hac de resit, illud certum est, quod Redemptor Noster Jésus Christus Dei Filius interrogatus quid censeret de libcllo re pudii quem Moyses permiferat, respondit ut legitur in Evangelio apird- Matth. cap. 19., apud Marc. cap. 10. Qupniam Moyses ad du ritiam cordis vestri permiftt vobis dimittere uxores veflras ab initio autem non fuit fie duo autem vobis quia quicumque dimijerit uxorem fuam nift ob furnicationem aliam duxerit mœcbatur qui ipsam duxerit macbatur Sermonemque suum ita conclusit Quod ergo Deus conjunxit homo non separet. Ex his autem verbis per legitimam conscquentiam inferunt Theo logi in prarfentiarum non amplius licere Hebra*is proprias uxores repudiare neque per libellum repudii matrimonii vinculum amplius dissolvi eo quod Jésus Christus illud ad suum prima»vum statum redegit nempe ad indislbIubilitatem non lege novâ conditá, sed dum taxat sublatâ veteri indulgentiâ, feu dispensatione super prardicta indislblubilitate concesla. Qua? cum ita se habeant etiamsi repudium toleretur inter Hebra»os conjuges, qui ambo in eadem Judaica perfidiâ permanent, certèferri, ac tolerari nullo modo débet ut Hebrxus ad Fidem conversus sacro Baptismatc ablutus libellum repudii uxori qua» in Hebraica pervicacia rcmanet, judaicomore, ac ritu concédât. Quamobrem ut in posterum omnia debito ordine laudabili modo ac ratione fiant volumus ac decernimus ut Hebra?us ad Fi dem conversus si uxorem Hebra:am habet eam more solito interpelles, an etiam ipfa conver ti, cohabitare velit sine contumelia Creatoris Renuente autem mulicre liberum ei erit aliud matrimonium contrahere juxta verba Beati Apostoli Pauli in Epist. 1. ad Corinth. cap. 7. £>uod fi infidelis difeedit, difeedat non enim fervitut fubjetlus est Frater, aut Soror in hujufmodi, in pace autem vocavit nos Deus. Ut benè jam ante animadverit clar. me. Prardccessor Noster Innocentius III. in sua Decretali, qua* incipit: tguatuoi de divortiis. Quaritur Theologis, Canonici juris Confultis, quando solvatur matrimonium contractum ab Hebra:o cum Hebrara, quar se convertere récusât, quando conversus novum ma trimonium cum muliere Christiana quando Hebrxus cum Hebrara contrahere possit. Quod ad converfum attinet, quidam volunt, pra»cedens matrimonium dislblvi quoad vinculum statim ac infidelis renuit Fidem Christianam am plecti, aut intra terminum feu temporis spatium prartìxurn in interpellatione qua? illi facta est, nullum responsum praîbet. Alii verò putant matrimonium solvi, quando conversus aliud matrimo:iium célébrât cum Christiana Qua* opinio in prisent! communior est inter Theologos, Caionici juris peritos in praxi eam sequitur Còngregario Sancta* Romana* Ec- ‘clesia* Cardinal-uni Decretorum Concilii Tridentini Intcrpretum. De folutione autem vinculi matrimonialis pr eo quod pertinet ad uxo_ -rem, qua; inHcbriica íaperstitione persévérât

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aliquî cenfent, quod ea in pœnam sus perfidie semper illigata remaneat, neque aliud matrimonium contrahere valeat, doncc quousque Maritus Christianus factus vivit Alii verò putant nullo modo eam matrimonium celebrare posse, si Maritus conversus non adhuc ad alias nuptias transivcrit ubi vcrò converíus matrimonum iniverit, permitti debere mulieri, ut idem facere posiìt, quia solutio matrimonii privilegium est concessum favore Christiana: Fidei, quam ad Christum conversus amplectitur ideo reótè affirmari posse, datum esse dircctè per se fideli, indirecte verò, per accidens infideli. Sed quidquid íìt de hujusmodi contfoversiis qua: inter Theologos juris Canonici prosessores disceptantur de quibus nihil Nos definire inrendimus, singulas illorum scntentias eo loco, quo sunt relinqucntes cum Nostra mens voluntas nequaquam sit aliquid nunc definire de matrimonio quod muliere Hebra»a concrahitur posteaquam nolle se Christiana: Fi dei nomen dare declaravit Sed id solum Motu proprio ex certa scientia, plenitudine potestatis tenore prarsentium volumus, intendimus, ac jubemus, ut cum aliquis Hebrseorum Christianam veritatem amplexus ‘fuerit, non pra:termitcatur interpellatio mulieri more recepto facienda, an velit, nec ne, se ad Christum convertere> dummodo tamen ex aliqua gravi cau sa, vel Nobis, vel Romanis Pontifïcibus Successoribus nostris non censeatur hujusinodi interpellatio omittenda, ut videre licet in nostra Constitutione In supremx, data die 16, Januarii anno MDCCXLV., qua? est CXVU. in Tom. I. Nostri Bullarii immo expresse vetamus, prohibe«nus ac interdicimus, ne Conversi quovis tempore, quovis modo, sive in Judiorum domicilio, nempe Ghetto, Rabbinico ritu, sive extra, coram Notario Testïbus Christianis, libellum repudii uxoribus, qua: interpellata: ré cusant se coavertcre, aut omissa vigore dispensationis ejusmodi interpellatione, quia ex probabili conjectura credicum est, minime se ad Christi Fidem conversuras, dare, fcribere, aut mitcere audeant, possint. Et quoniam ut plurimum contingic ut leges debicam executionem non consequantur nisi Sanctio pœnalis contra eas transgredientes ac cédât; hac Nostra in perpetuum valitura Con stitutione motu scientia ac potestate pari mandamus, ac prarcipimus, ut omnia Tribunalia, ac Judices compétentes habita notitia, aliquem ex Hebrans conversis post ùifceptumBaptismum libellum repudii intra ipsum Juda:orum domicilium, Rabbinicis supcrstitionibus adhibitis, uxorinon conversa: dédisse statim in eum sine ulla cunctatione, tanquam in Judaizantem, solitis pccnis animadvertant; insuper contra ipsam Judarorum Universitatem in casu tpr^dicto procédant manu regia mulctam ab ea exigentes centum scutorum aureorum cujus tcrtia pars in pra’mium accusatoritribuatur, quod ve rò superest concessum, addictum ipso jure per hanc Nostram Constitutionem intelligatur Pise Domui Catechumenorum in illis Civitatibus in quibus ea reperitur, ubi autem hujusmodi Catechumenorum Domus non extat, re maneat libéra: dispositioni Episcoporum Ordmariorum, ut eam pecuniam pauperibus Chri stianis pro eorum arbitrio conscientia distri buant. Sin autem ad Tribunalium feu Judicum competentium cognitionem Npervenorit quod Conversus libellum repudii exrra Judiorum domicilium feu Ghetto dederit coram Notario, Testibus Christianis, pari modo eum tanquam Judaizantem débita pœna arficiant, minori tamen, qua plecti débet, qui intrà ipsum Ghetto Rabbinicis superstitionibus li bellum repudii scripscrit. Item procedatur

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contra Notarium Christianum dictam Hebracorum Universitatem sine cujus scientia, procuratione hujuímodi damnabilia negotia non transiguntur, pro rata parte mulctentur cen tum scutis aureis, exigendis, distribuendis applicandisque ut supra dictum est tum etiam Te stes Christiani pœna arbitraria, etiam corporis afflictiva pro prudenti Judicum arbitrio puniantur. Pra:terea, etsi libdlus repudii, juxta hebraicum morem, ac ritum solùm Marito uxori mittatur non autem permissum sit uxori ut iilum Marico praebeat, nihilominus quia nobis compertum est esse aliquos qui existimant eriam Muliere Marito dari posse, ut omni in futurum dubitationi, ac quarstioni, qua?exoriri posset, occurramus hac Nostra prifenti volu mus, ac deciaramus ut omnia, &singula, qua: Nobis superius de marito ad Fidem converso, rémanente ejus uxore in Judaica superstitione disposita ac statura snnt, etiam in casu uxoris ad Christum conversa:, rémanente marito in infidelitate locum omnino habeant atque obtineant ab omnibus prorsus serventur, custodiantur. Non obstantibus Constitutionibus, &Ordinationibus Apostolicis, privilegiis quoque, Iudultis Literis Apostolicis dictis Hebrads eorumve Universitatibus sub quibuscumque tenoribus formis, cum quibusvis etiam derogatoriarum derogatoriis, aliisque efficacioribus insolicis clausulis, decretis in génère, vel in specie quomodolibet concessis etiam sepius approbatis, innovatis. Quibus omnibus, singulis, etiamsi alias pro illorum snfficienti derogatione de illis, eorumque totis tenoribus specialis specifica individua mentio ha benda, feu qua:vis alia exquisita forma ad hoc servanda esset, tenores hujusmodi, nec non for mas, décréta in illis apposira, ac si de verbo ad verbum infererentur pradentibus profufficienter expressis insertis habentes illis quoad reliqua in fuo robore permaníiiris, adeffectum primissorum, fpecialiter, expressè derogamus cœtcrisque conrrariis quibuscumque. Volumus autem prassentes Literas ad valvas Ba silics: Principis Apostolorum de Urbe, in Acie Camni Flora:, atque in Platea, qua: Judarorum nuncupatur per Curfores Nostros publicari, earum exemplis inibi affixis, ac dimissis, ac post hujusmodi publicationem elapsum terminum superius prasscriptum cunctos, &singulos, quos concernunr, perinde arctare, atque affìcere, ac si eorum cuilibet personaliter intimata: fuissent, illarumque exemplis, etiam impressis, manu alicujus Notarii publici fubfcriptis, Sigillo Persona: in Dignitate Ecclcfiastica constituta: munitis, eandem prorsus fidem in judicio, extra illud haberi qua: ipsis pra:fentìbus haberetur, si essent exhibita: vel ostenfa:. Nulli ergò omninò hominum liceat hanc paginam Nostrx voluntatis inhibitionis, prxcepti, mandati, derogationis infringere, vel ei aufu temerario contraire. Si quis autem hoc attentare prassumpferit indignationem Omnipotentis Dei ac Beatorum Pétri Pauli Aposto lorum ejus se noverit iiicurfurum. Datum Roma: apud Sactam Mariam Majorem Anno Incarnationis Dominica: Millesimo feptingentesimo quadragesimo feptimo, decimosexto Kalendas Octobns Pontificatus Nostri Anno Octavo. D. Card. Passioneus, J. Datarius. Visa di Cukia. N. Antonellus Pro-Abbreviator. J. B. Eugenius. Loco >{< Plumbi. Rcgistrata in Secretaria Brevium. Publicat. die 30. Septer/ibris 1747.

About richardsh

Messianic Jewish teacher in UK
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